Papermaking today includes, in principle, the same process steps as applied for centuries: preparation of the fiber material, sheet or web forming, pressing, drying, sizing and smoothing. However, in the last two centuries much of the detail has changed. Each process step has undergone – and still undergoes today – intensive research and development work to meet economic and ecological requirements. All links in the chain between fiber and end user contribute to this progress.
The chain does not only include the paper producing industry itself and its suppliers such as the machine and chemical industry, but also the paper industry’s customers and related industries, e. g. printing-houses, printing ink and printing machine suppliers and the manufacturers of corrugated board.